In many nations throughout the world, the HIV/AIDS epidemic has become a severe health and development issue.

According to the Joint United Nations Programme on AIDS (UNAIDS), the number of HIV infections globally is expected to reach 56.1 million by the end of 2021, with Sub-Saharan Africa accounting for 25.3 million of those.

Another 21.8 million people have perished from the illness since the outbreak began, largely in Africa. And each year, some 600,000 new-borns become infected, with African youngsters being almost 90% of the total.

The AIDS virus has already infected and is infecting many Ghanaians. Approximately 3% of the adult population in the nation is infected with HIV.

The majority of these individuals are unaware that they are infected with the virus. Around 300,000 adults and 50,000 children were already afflicted by 2021.

More than 185,000 people may have developed AIDS from the beginning of the pandemic in the mid-1980s and the end of 2021, though not all of them have been officially documented.

AIDS has no treatment, and it is quickly becoming one of the country’s most critical development challenges. Despite this, much may be done to change the path of the HIV/AIDS pandemic in Ghana.

HIV is not transferred by casual contact, mosquitos, or in the air or water. Because HIV is spread by specific forms of human behaviour, it may be managed by changing those behaviours.

What is required is continuous involvement from all sectors of Ghanaian society to promote interventions to reduce high-risk sexual behaviours, treat and control other sexually transmitted diseases, maintain a safe blood supply, ensure safe needle use, and alleviate the problems of those already infected with HIV or otherwise affected by the epidemic.


The data used is derived from the 2019 National HIV Estimates and Projections since the 2020/2021 statistical data has not yet been disseminated according to the Ghana AIDS Commission. The data is an estimation of the HIV population of men and women (15-49) for the year 2020 and 2021. The data used for this project is secondary data.

Female224 166232.2°
Male123 439127.8°
TOTAL347 605360°
2020 data
Female228 255232.5°
Male125 213127.5°
2021 data

The chart above indicates the estimated number of HIV population between regions in Ghana within the year 2021. In the chart it is seen that in 2021, there has been an increase in the HIV/AIDS population.

The average number of estimated HIV patients between these two years is 350,538. This is to communicate the rampant increase in HIV cases and to caution the public to adhere to all safety measures such as practicing protected sex and not sharing sharp objects in order to stay safe.

With this said, the public is also being advised to undergo the HIV test in order to be put on treatment to help reduce the rate of spreading it to others.

The average (x̅) of HIV cases by regions is 21,727.4375

REGIONSHIV CASES (x)(x-x̅)(x-x̅)2
GREATER ACCRA70,85549,127.56252,413,517,397.1914
BONO EAST14,273-7,454.437555,568,638.441406
WESTERN NORTH10,619-11,108.4375123,397,383.69141
UPPER EAST7,953-13,774.4375189,735,128.44141
UPPER WEST5,725-16,002-4375256,078,005.94141
Table showing the deviations of HIV per every region

The C.V in the above document shows that 101% is unacceptable because, the normal CV is supposed to be within 10% to 30% and any C.V above 30 is abnormal.

In a more normal way, any C.V or figure above 50% is not acceptable and it shows the abnormalities of the cases.


In Ghana, as in the rest of Africa, two transmission mechanisms account for most new HIV infections in the country: heterosexual contact and mother-to-child (MTC) transmission. Besides sexual contact and MTC transfer, HIV can also be transmitted through contaminated blood, for example, through transfusions or the sharing of needles or blades that have been in contact with the blood of an HIV-infected person.

Heterosexual Contact: The majority of infections (80 percent) are transmitted through heterosexual contact. One is the presence in either partner during unprotected sex of a sexually transmitted disease (STD), such as syphilis or gonorrhea. These diseases form ulcers and sores that facilitate the transfer of the virus.

Mother-to-Child Transmission: Many children are infected through mother-to-child transmission. They receive the infection from their mothers during pregnancy, at the time of birth or through breastfeeding.


 Voluntary counselling and testing services have been shown in many African countries to attract many clients who want to know their HIV status.

The public is encouraged to make use of such a facility. However, the incentive to be tested is stronger when medical services are available for those who test positive.

Care for People Living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) including home-based care will be strengthened to improve service delivery and mitigate the impact of HIV/AIDS on individuals, the family and communities.

Access to prophylaxis and treatment of opportunistic infections is being improved. HAART (Highly active anti-retroviral therapy) which is being promoted worldwide is not widely available in Ghana.

MOH is taking steps to ensure its availability in the near future. Efforts to make these drugs more available and affordable to the clients will be strengthened.

MTCT is estimated to account for about 15% of all HIV transmissions in Ghana. An initiative to reduce MTCT in high prevalence areas has started and will be scaled up to include all districts in Ghana in the future.

Interventions are in place to reduce HIV transmission in the clinical setting through safe blood transfusion, infection prevention measures and provision of post-exposure prophylaxis.

Outside clinical settings, strategies are in place to reduce transmission by individuals whose work puts their clients at risk of HIV transmission such as Traditional Birth Attendants, Wanzams, and beauticians, among others.

Also, reports show that, archive cases HIV/AIDS cases in 2021 are about 3.5 million.


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Bennell, P; Hyde, K.; Agyapong, N. 2020. The impact of the HIV/AIDS epidemic on the education sector in sub-Saharan Africa. Ghana Aids Commission

Bennell, P; Chilisa, B; Hyde, K; Makgothi, E; Molobe, E; Mpotokwane, LL 2000. The impact of HIV/AIDS on primary and secondary education in Botswana: developing a comprehensive strategic response. Ghana: DFID.

Brock, C; Cammish, N.K. 1997. Factors affecting female participation in education in seven developing countries. Education Research ‘No. 9. Lebanon: ODA.

Casely-Hayford, L. 2001. The needs of female teachers in rural deprived areas of Ghana. Accra: Ministry of Education/Ghana Education Service.

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Coombe, C. 2000. Managing the impact of HIV/AIDS on the education sector. Mimeo.

Daniel, L. 1998. Life beyond teenage motherhood. MA dissertation, Institute of Development Studies, UCC.

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